Tuesday, January 2, 2018
Interpersonal "style" approach to personality disorders
Instead of specific personality disorders, some psychologists today believe that the maladaptive behaviors should be focused on "style" rather than distinct disorders. University of Minnesota psychologist Sylvia Wilson and colleagues noted in their research concerning their new approach, "Interpersonal style is defined by one's characteristic approach to interpersonal situations and relationships." Due to how they perceive themselves and others in their relationships, people with personality disorders typically have turbulent and unstable relationships. Here are the eight specific traits identified in their research of someone with a personality disorder: 1) DOMINEERING Individuals scored high on this trait who had antisocial and narcissistic personality disorder. Antisocial pd is a pattern of violating and disregarding the right of others. Also, people with this disorder may not follow social norms or laws. Individuals with narcissistic pd don't have empathy for others also. They feel the need to showoff their achievements and be in the spotlight frequently. People who have histrionic pd scored high on this trait too. Histrionic pd is characterized by attention-seeking behavior and excessive displays of emotion. 2) VINDICTIVE Scoring high on this trait were people with paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, dependent, narcissistic, and borderline personality disorders. Individuals with paranoid pd view others' motives as suspicious and spiteful. Those with schizotypal pd have distorted thinking and extreme discomfort in close relationships. As you might guess, dependent pd is a pattern of feeling helpless and needing to be taken care of. They fear being alone and display clingy behavior. Great instability in their self-image, relationships with others, and emotions describe those with borderline pd. 3) COLD Scoring high in this trait was paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, and avoidant pd. People with schizoid pd usually don't display much emotion and detach themselves from relationships. They prefer being alone. They may not respond to others' emotions, especially to praise or criticism. However, those with avoidant pd are very sensitive to criticism. They may avoid social activities due to feeling inadequate or inferior. Obsessing over what other people think about them and poor self-esteem are traits individuals with this disorder have. 4) SOCIALLY AVOIDANT People with antisocial pd and avoidant pd scored high. Because they don't tend to form close relationships with others, people with schizoid pd also scored highly here. 5) NONASSERTIVE Most likely to be nonassertive are people with schizoid, schizotypal and avoidant pd. However, on the opposite end those with narcissistic and antisocial pd scored high in assertiveness. 6) EXPLOITABLE Narcissistic, antisocial, and dependent pd all scored high in this trait because all three center around using others for personal gain in some manner. 7) OVERLY NURTURANT Displaying this trait is people with dependent pd, as they need to form close bonds with others in order to get them to take care of them. 8) INTRUSIVE Narcissistic, borderline, histrionic, dependent, and antisocial pd scored the highest. Compulsive pd does not usually affect relationships either positively or negatively. Interestingly, those with this disorder had fairly stable interpersonal personality traits.